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Dataset “Social Entrepreneurship in the World Economy: a Path from Virtual Scores to Big Data – 2020”

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The newest phenomena in the global economy changed the course of its development. Under the influence of the global recession (2008) and adopted goals of sustainable development, the capitalistic principles were reconsidered. In the near future, “pure” market is to be replaced by the social market economy. This will ensure transition from entrepreneurship, involved into “battle royale”, which is peculiar for highly-competitive market environment, to social entrepreneurship, involved into social problems of a territory on which it is located and contributing voluntarily into their solution.

The change of the model of entrepreneurial activities creates a serious challenge for modern economic subjects: entrepreneurs have to adopt a new philosophy of business, society has to form new consumer preferences for stimulating development of social entrepreneurship, and government should develop highly-effective “rules of the game” in the business environment with participation of social companies. Despite the acknowledgment of the necessity for development of social entrepreneurship, its scientific concept has not been formed.

Firstly, the very notion of social entrepreneurship has no scientific definition: there are a lot of scientific treatments that contradict each other. One view of social entrepreneurship envisages its definition by the criterion of the organizational & legal form and assigning the subjects of non-profit entrepreneurship. Another view focuses on the necessity for wide development of social entrepreneurship and envisages its treatment as entrepreneurship that manifests corporate social responsibility.

Secondly, the scientific and methodological provision for evaluation and analysis of social entrepreneurship is not determined, and there are no parameters for its measuring. The international statistical reports have no data on the topic of social entrepreneurship – small and medium entrepreneurship is traditionally distinguished in the structure of business, with hi-tech, digital, and innovative entrepreneurship.

Absence of empirical basis does not allow for monitoring of social entrepreneurship and thus hinders evaluation of the current level and tendencies of its development, as well as inter-territorial and international comparisons. Scientific research of social entrepreneurship is also complicated, as scholars have to use their own expert opinions (virtual evaluations, which are far from reality) and scatted and mostly incompatible data of different statistical sources, paying more attention to collection of accessible information than its processing and analysis.

The topicality of the problem is confirmed by the fact that there are attempts on overcoming the deficit of empirical data on the topic of social entrepreneurship. Let us provide the most well-known and successful examples. Charities Aid Foundation calculated the number of non-commercial companies in the USA in 2016 and issued a report “Gross domestic philanthropy: an international analysis of GDP, tax and giving”. Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies in their report “The 2019 nonprofit employment report” provided the number of volunteers in non-commercial organizations in the USA.

Supporting the current government initiatives on science's transfer into the digital form and bringing it in accordance to the Fourth technological mode, the Institute of Scientific Communications developed a data set on social entrepreneurship (the first one in the global practice). It contains statistical data on social entrepreneurship its evaluation with the help of specially developed index.

We hope that the presented data set will allow raising scientific interest in the topic of social entrepreneurship, increasing the number of performed studies, as well as their efficiency and effectiveness, and forming an empirical basis for automatized R&D in the sphere of social entrepreneurship with application of the technologies of Big Data processing and artificial analytics.

The data set contains the following indicators of social entrepreneurship in the global economy (for values – the higher the better):

1. Indicators of social responsibility of entrepreneurship:

•  Share of protected employment. The indicator is calculated by the UN (UNDP) within the “Human development report 2019. Beyond income. Inequality in human development”. Its original title is “unprotected employment”. The data set contains reverse values – different of the values of the original indicator. The indicator in the data set shows per cent of the officially employed with legal protection of their labor rights.

•  Hiring and firing practices. The indicator is calculated by the World Economic Forum within evaluation of global competitiveness (number 8.02). It shows companies' responsibility and seriousness during personnel management: how they strive to keep employees and prevent brain drain and how they are flexible during personnel selection and hiring, as well as the individual approach to personnel management ;

•  Redundancy costs weeks of salary. The indicator is calculated by the World Economic Forum within evaluation of global competitiveness (number 8.01). Its shows companies' obligations on material provision and benefits for redundant workers: complexity of the organized measures for early warning of workers about their reduction, the volume of dismissal pay, and the period of payment of dismissal pay ;

•  Cooperation in labour-employer relations. The indicator is calculated by the World Economic Forum within evaluation of global competitiveness (number 8.03). Its shows companies' loyalty to the activities of unions, their support for these activities, and execution of their requirements;

•  Flexibility of wage determination. The indicator is calculated by the World Economic Forum within evaluation of global competitiveness (number 8.04). Its shows the level of individualization of the approach to wages and the effectiveness of the system of motivation and stimulation of labor of companies' workers;

•  Reliance on professional management. The indicator is calculated by t he World Economic Forum within evaluation of global competitiveness (number 8.09). Its shows the level of qualification and experience (competence) of companies' managers and their ability to create favorable conditions and to organize efficient work at a company, as well as to develop the labor and creative potential of the workers;

•  Pay and productivity. The indicator is calculated by the World Economic Forum within evaluation of global competitiveness (number 8.10). Its shows connection between wages and efficiency, reflecting the justice of the system of wages at companies and its stimulation of workers for manifesting high efficiency;

•  Ratio of wage and salaried female workers to male workers. The indicator is calculated by the World Economic Forum within evaluation of global competitiveness (number 8.11). It shows gender barriers at companies and gender differences in career building and wages;

•  Multi-stakeholder collaboration. The indicator is calculated by the World Economic Forum within evaluation of global competitiveness (number 12.04). It shows involvement and collaboration of interested parties – employees, populations of the territory on which the company is located, creditors, investors, intermediaries, representatives of civil society, and consumers – in the company's activities and reflects the level of business's taking into account the interested parties' opinions.

2. Indicators of non-commercial activities of entrepreneurship:

•  Number of non-profit enterprises. The indicator is calculated by the expert and analytics organization CSR Hub within the Overview of corporate social responsibility for regions and countries;

•  Share of non-profit enterprises. The indicator was calculated by Gross Domestic Philanthropy in 2016. Its original title is “Charitable donation”. It shows the share of non-commercial organizations in the structure of entrepreneurship in 20 countries in 2016;

•  Business extent of disclosure index. The indicator is calculated by the World Bank. Its original title is “ Business extent of disclosure index (0=less disclosure to 10=more disclosure)”. Its shows the level of disclosure of entrepreneurship, sufficiency of corporate reports, and level of disclosure of information on companies' activities in the official documents .

•  World giving index. The indicator is calculated by the Charities Aid Foundation within the report “CAF World giving index: ten years of giving trends”. Its shows charity (non-profit, social) activities in the socio-economic system, including help for underprivileged people, donations, and volunteer work.

Advantages of the data set of the Institute of Scientific Communications :

•  System and correctness: collection and systematization of the main statistical data in one data set and their analysis with application of the proprietary methodology of calculation of the social entrepreneurship index , which allows determining the level of sociality of entrepreneurship in economy and making international comparisons;

•  Topicality and representation: the data set contains new data (as of year-end 2019), which form the basis for empirical studies in 2020;

•  Reliability and objectivity: the data set contains the statistics of respectable sources on the topic of social entrepreneurship: Gross Domestic Philanthropy, CSR Hub, Charities Aid Foundation, World Economic Forum, UNDP, and World Bank;

•  Clarity of the structure: for simple, quick, and convenient work for users, thematic parts are distinguished in its structure;

•  Templates: the data set offers two data templates: countries of G7 (developed) and countries of BRICS (developing), countries of the CIS, countries of the EAEU, and geographic templates of regions of the world, due to which it is possible to quickly select the necessary data for economic experiments that are aimed at comparison of countries of the main categories in real time;

•  Import of data: the data set allows selecting the necessary information and importing it in Microsoft Excel for further analytics;

•  Interactivity: the data set allows sorting and combining various data, unifying them into a general array according to user's needs and allows forming and visualizing the interactive profiles of countries of the world by the level of development of social entrepreneurship;

•  Ranking: based on the data set, a ranking of social entrepreneurship in countries of the world for 2020 is compiled;

•  Work by the blockchain principle: firstly, the data are structured by the blockchain principle; secondly, the data set allows sharing information, changing it, and processing it according to users' queries – the initial data remain unchanged, which is very convenient and safe.

The data set was developed by Elena G. Popkova, D.Sc. Economics, Professor, President of the Institute of Scientific Communications and by Bruno S. Sergi, D.Sc. Economics, Professor, Harvard University (USA) and University of Messina (Italy)

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